Dissertation Proposal: how to deal with that?

Ph.D. thesis is always a qualifying work. You defend some work in which you show your qualifications. This does not necessarily have to be some kind of breakthrough direction in science, practice. But sometimes this concept – qualification work – is somehow simplified. It is believed that if you have written several formulas or 150 pages of reasoning, the qualification work is ready and you can go to defend it. However, it is not. In any case, a Ph.D. thesis should contain at least a new look at some well-known problem statements or some new solutions.

So, how to write a proposal for a dissertation. I have been taught many times that they first read the abstract, then they read the introduction, then they read the conclusion, and after all, this, if they like it, they begin to read the text. Therefore, the abstract and introduction should be extremely clear and well-structured. In this case, there should be a clear and concise description of what you have done and the place of your task in the class of tasks to which it relates. The person reading this text should understand where your dissertation fits. The same applies to articles.

The author’s dissertation proposal repeats the structure of the thesis, everything should be more concise, the only feature that is incomprehensible to me in the author’s abstracts is why it is impossible to refer to other people’s works. In my opinion, this is also a VAK requirement, but I never understood it. If you get the results, developing the work of other people, why not refer to this work.

Every dissertation is the expenditure of some intellectual and physical resources. Never waste time on “narrow” topics that are not interesting to anyone. You cannot spend time on a thesis, which will become obsolete before you have time to defend it, you cannot spend time on a thesis, which will go on the shelf and be forgotten in six months. Always try to choose the right balance between work and effort. Any dissertation is a waste of effort. Somehow one of my co-authors decided to do work on car sales, he was ordered by the car sales association. He worked on this topic for some time, analyzed sales, built a regression model, and before handing it over to the customer, told me what he did. I told him that everything is working out well, but macro factors that affect the economy as a whole are not taken into account. Therefore, if now something “shakes” in the system, everything can change. And he calmly replied that no, nothing will happen.

How to write a comparative essay?

Perhaps you were asked a comparative essay in class, or you need to write a comprehensive comparative report at work. In order to write an outstanding work, you need to start with the identification of two objects that have enough common features and differences that are amenable to the meaningful comparison. Then you need to find at least two or three points by which you can compare them using research, facts and well-formed paragraphs, which will help to impress and captivate your readers. Writing a comparative and contrast essay is an important skill that is often useful to you in your academic career.

Carefully analyze the issue. You may have great ideas for writing in your head, but if it doesn’t exactly fit the given topic, you will lose points. Look at the leading questions (or heading, if any) and underline the key phrases. Keep a list of them in front of you throughout the work.

 Examine comparable items. Despite the fact that you will be tempted to delve into the details of the objects being compared, it is important to provide no more details than the format of the task requires. Compare several aspects in each of the topics instead of trying to cover both topics entirely.

 Write an essay out of order. No seriously. You may have been taught to sit down and start writing a paper from beginning to end, but this is not only more difficult but also, moreover, your ideas will be incoherent. Instead, do this:

First, the main part. Work through all the information that you have, and see what story she tells you. Only when you process your data will you know which point of your work will be the most voluminous.

The second stage is the conclusion. Now that you have coped with the most difficult task, the basic idea of ​​your work is clearly presented to you. Forge while hot.

At the end – an introduction. In general, this is the reorganization/rephrasing of your conclusion. Be careful not to use the same words and phrases.

 Write the paragraphs of the main part. The first sentence of the main paragraph (it is often called the key sentence) prepares the reader for what will be discussed in the paragraph. The middle part of the paragraph reveals the information you have collected, and the last sentence makes a small conclusion based on this information.

Structure paragraphs using one of the following methods. Once you have decided on the points by which you will make a comparison, decide which structure of the paragraph you will use (how the comparisons will be arranged) to give the data the greatest importance.

How to choose a good web site to order a term paper?

Each student sooner or later faces the problem of writing a term paper cheap. And he faces a choice: write yourself or order a finished work. Requirements for coursework are complicated every year, new rules are introduced and plagiarism is excluded. If earlier applicants could download ready-made texts and make a coursework or a thesis from these fragments, today in educational institutions they carefully check the quality of the work performed. And as always, the student has little time, so he often thinks about where to order a term paper?

Perhaps this is the main question for students, because the budget is usually limited. And many people are tormented by writing coursework on their own, since they are not aware of the cost of coursework projects. A worthy company provides the opportunity to order coursework cheap and with a guarantee. Moreover, payment can be made in any convenient way, including e-wallets, bank cards and others. Transactions are as transparent as possible and payment is safe. The price of coursework depends on the number of pages, the topic of work and other characteristics.

The benefits of ordering term paper cheaply on sites

Relatively low price. You can order coursework online cheap.

High-quality work is ensured thanks to the professionalism of our employees. There are graduates of universities, as well as teachers who write term papers according to your wishes.

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Writing course to order in various disciplines. We can take orders even for complex topics.

Convenient methods of calculation via the Internet allow you to order a term paper  from anywhere in the country.

How to format essay in MLA style?

MLA is a formatting and citation code widely used in academic and professional writing in English. If you want to write a scientific article or publication for a journal or university in the United States or another country that uses MLA formatting, then you should follow the stylistic rules described below.

According to the MLA (Modern Languages ​​Associations) style, when using quotations in an essay, you must specify the author’s name and page number. If you quote verses, then you have to link to verses instead of page numbers. Unlike the APA style, you do not have to indicate the year in which the quote was written in the main text of your essay, although you will have to indicate it on the detailed reference page at the very end of the essay.

Give short quotes. According to the MLA style, a short quote is anything that is less than four printed lines of prose or three poetic lines. If your quotation meets these requirements regarding length, then you just need to 1) take the quotation in double quotes, 2) specify the author’s last name 3) specify the page number. You can insert the author’s name before the quote or place it in parentheses after the quote. You can simply write the page number at the end without using the “p”, etc. for page designation.

The quotation must begin with the introductory text; Do not insert a quote without introductory text, otherwise readers may not understand what’s what. Use the multi-word preface to insert a quote, then open the quotes and enter the quote in them; After that, indicate the author’s name and page number in brackets and put a period (or another punctuation mark) at the end of the sentence. Here is an example:

According to some critics, the writer’s texts “almost died in the 21st century” (Smith, 200).

You can also mention the author’s name in the text instead of writing it in brackets at the end. There is another way to do this:

Jones argues: “it is proven that people who read writer texts sympathize with others more” (85).

You can also quote a quotation with an introduction, and then comment on it like this:

Many are convinced that “doing any kind of sport is a waste of time”, (Lane 50), while others completely disagree with them.

If the original quote is a punctuation mark, then you will have to put it in the quote:

The protagonist, Henry Harrison, always starts his day, saying, “What a wonderful morning!” (Granger 12).

The dissertation outline: how to deal with that?

The outline for dissertation is compiled by a graduate student personally. At the same time, verification and approval of the plan by the supervisor are required. Keep in mind that in the process of work, the plan of the candidate thesis (you can find a sample at the end of the article) can be modified several times. Initially, the main elements that the dissertation prospectus should contain the plan are the names of the various headings united by the logic of the research.

Key Plan Issues

Key issues that need to be addressed: Setting a goal, formulating tasks, defining a problem. Publication of a review article,

The choice of the method by which the study will be conducted. Attach a publication describing this stage of work. Software development (if necessary) for solving problems.

Experiment. The publication, which describes the course of the experiment. Implementation.

A publication describing the experience of the study, as well as bringing the results of experience.

The outline should be detailed; this will enable the dissertation to be written in sequence. A properly written plan ensures that the finished work will be logical, orderly and complete. Until the first chapter is fully studied, it is not necessary to touch upon questions concerning the second; the task should be performed consistently, this will help determine the optimal solutions to the planned tasks. Thesis plan can be dynamic, rapidly developing; the main thing that he did not hold down the thoughts of the researcher. All aspects should be included in the plan; at the same time, one should not ignore accidental discoveries that may arise in the process of work.


The thesis must be prepared by the applicant of the degree. When using literary sources in the text, it is necessary to indicate references to them. It is important to clearly state the contribution of the author of the dissertation to science. All solutions proposed by the researcher must be argued and critically evaluated by comparing them with other known solutions. If the dissertation has an applied value, it is necessary to provide information about examples of the practical use of scientific results obtained by the author. If the thesis is theoretical, it is important to highlight recommendations on the use of the conclusions set forth by the author. We should not forget that the dissertation, above all – scientific work. In general, writing a thesis is similar to the preparation of a thesis; The process of creating a thesis is, roughly speaking, a simplified model of writing a dissertation. The essential difference between the thesis and the diploma lies in the fact that in the case of the first, the scientific problem to be solved should be of serious importance for science, as well as for the economy of the state, and also contain a significant, innovative contribution to the achievements of the modern scientific world. Usually, a dissertation is a manuscript or a printed text of 180 sheets.

Main part.
Three chapters: a critical analysis of the research situation, based on the study of sources, bringing fundamentally new solutions proposed by the author; description of the results of the implementation of new solutions, a critical assessment of the work done.
Key findings, concise presentation of all results. Bibliographic list. Applications.
Often, the thesis supplements the materials that have a reference character.

What is an essay?

An essay is a small prose essay that is written in a literary genre on any topic. Students do this work in a freestyle, where they express their own thoughts, feelings, and ideas.

However, despite the freedom of creativity, writing an essay is not as easy as it seems at first glance. After all, you need to find the original idea and beautifully present it. And this is not for everyone.

Requirements for writing an essay

Literacy alone is not enough to get a high essay score. It is necessary to remember about the structure, which includes: Introduction; Main part; Conclusion.

It depends on the introduction of whether the reader will want to finish reading your essay. Therefore, you need to start with interest. Formulate a problem, add an interesting quote, describe the essence. That is, you need to create an emotional mood.

Why help with an essay is inexpensive?

Composing and arranging an essay is not an easy job. First, it is necessary to pick up interesting metaphors, allegories, aphorisms. The essay should have its own original writing style to catch and interest the reader. Collecting information takes a lot of time and effort. As a result, quite often it turns out the essay is not the same as we would like.

If a student is poorly able to process information, he will not be able to take into account all the nuances from the first time, and, most likely, the teacher will give an essay to finalize, which takes a lot of time.

Very often, teachers require high uniqueness on the essay. Therefore, it will not work simply to get information from the Internet. We must still rewrite everything in your own words so that it is not only original but also qualitative.

Professionals in their proven companies work in a short time and can write your essay freely, efficiently, uniquely and, above all, without any modifications. You do not have to blush in front of the teacher, as they will appreciate your work.

The cost of writing an essay depends on the complexity of the work, volume, uniqueness, deadlines and other requirements.

The complexity of the work lies in the search for information, the fewer sources on a given topic, the higher the price.

In addition, the price depends on the time of delivery. If you need to work urgently, respectively, the cost is automatically increased.

This is possible thanks to the online system on the principle of the exchange, where the authors are fighting for your order and call the lowest possible prices.

How to write an abstract for a research paper?

If you need to write an abstract (in translation – “abstract, summary, abstract”) to a scientific article or report, do not panic; your abstract is simply a summary of work or article that others can use as a review. It will help your reader understand what the article is about, and with its help, people will be able to find a specific job and decide if it is suitable for achieving their goals. If you look at the abstract simply as a summary of what you have already written, it is very easy to do!

How to start an abstraction?

First, write the actual research paper. Despite the fact that the abstract is at the beginning of work, it performs the function of a summary of the entire article. This is not an introduction to your topic, but a review of everything you wrote in the article.

Entry and abstraction are completely different things. The entry in the article represents the main idea or question, while the abstract serves to review the entire article, including methods and results.

Even if you think that you know what your article will be about, always save the referencing for last. You can create a much more accurate resume if you just do this – briefly state what you have already written.

Review and understand all the requirements for writing an abstract. The abstract you are working on is most likely asked at school or assigned to write at work. Thus, you should have been given specific requirements for the whole essay or abstract (annotations). Before you start writing, refer to the rules or recommendations given to you.

Identify the most important points to remember.

What is the maximum or minimum job size?

Are there any style requirements?

Do you write for a teacher or for publication?

Consider the target audience. Will your abstract be read by other scientists from your industry, or should it be accessible also to any reader and someone from another industry? Determine the type of abstract you need to write. Although all abstracts serve almost the same purpose, there are two main styles of summarization — descriptive and informative. You may have been given a specific style to follow, but if not, then you yourself will need to find the right course. Typically, informative abstracts are used for longer technical studies such as a research paper, while descriptive ones are better suited for short articles.

Ph.D. length recommendations

When writing a Ph.D. thesis, a graduate student needs to know many nuances regarding the content and design of the work. The thesis is not a school essay or an essay, but a significant scientific work – qualification work for the degree of candidate of science. It is natural that there are a lot of requirements for it. All of them, of course, is mandatory, otherwise, the work will not be allowed to protect. One of the important points to pay attention to is the volume of the thesis.

Candidate dissertation consists of the following elements and has the according length:

1. Title page.

2. Table of Contents

3. The content part.

4. References.

5. Applications.

6. List of terms and conventions.

There are no officially regulated requirements for the volume of the thesis. However, there are recommended volumes, to adhere to which is the rule of good tone in the scientific community. Thus, the total volume should be 150–200 pages for the candidate’s work and 300–400 pages for the doctoral one. These figures are given in relation to the humanitarian direction. The workload of the technical direction is usually less.

Each part of the master’s thesis has its own recommendations for the volume and content. The introduction, the chapters from the 3rd to the 5th and the conclusion are the components of the substantive part of the work. The recommended volume of the entire content is not less than 120, but not more than 150 pages. Of these, 5–10 pages are allocated for the introduction. The remaining number of pages should be evenly distributed between the chapters. It should be borne in mind that conclusions are added to each chapter. By volume, all chapters should be approximately the same. The allowable difference between them is 10-15 pages. If there is a chapter that is significantly larger or smaller than the others, it is better to make corrections right away so that you do not have to rewrite everything later.

Applications and references in the total number of pages of work are not included. There are no restrictions on their volume. Thesis pages are printed on the computer.

Remember that the dissertation is too large in volume – “grief” for your scientific opponents. And their reviews and speeches on defense are significant. So appreciate your time and others: write in moderation and be succinct. “Brevity is the sister of talent,” as the great A. Chekhov said.

It will not be superfluous to remind that the dissertation for the degree must be issued at a high level. It misplaced jargon, emotional and expressive vocabulary, subjective statements, spelling and punctuation errors. And the volume of the thesis must meet the requirements, be sufficient and reasonable.

Term paper: what is that and how to write?

Are you sure you know how to write a term paper? After all, this is not just a great essay, but a real scientific work with goals, objectives, conclusions, annotation, and review. Just do not panic in advance: it is not as difficult as it seems at first glance.

Inexperienced students are often plagued by questions: “When should we start preparing for the course? For a year, a month, a week, a night?” Of course, hardly anyone will start training much in advance. But there are things that need to be done as early as possible. For example, choose a teacher.

First, future topics for coursework depend on professors’ area of ​​interest. Secondly, teachers have different characters: the general level of intractability and stubbornness is different for everyone. And the sooner you “grab” yourself more or less flexible, the more comfortable the course work will be written taking into account all the rules of writing.

Theme selection

When you have chosen a supervisor whose interests are close to you, it’s time to discuss with him the topics that he can offer you. We recommend taking a time out for a week and considering how to choose a topic for a term paper.


Once you have decided on the topic, start drawing up a plan. To make a plan correctly is simple science. In order to write your own coursework, make two plans: abstract and detailed.

Sketch a short abstract plan (an example you will find in the article) and show it to the supervisor. After his corrections and comments, proceed to the final version. Each paragraph is described in one paragraph or sentence: what will you write about and what question to open.


Typically, teachers themselves provide the main sources of literature. But this is not all books and scientific works that can be used to correctly write a term paper. Monographs, articles in journals, foreign publications – this is an incomplete list of what can and should be involved in the course project.

It is recommended to use at least 4 main sources. Just by rewriting the head of someone’s coursework, the coveted top five will not get. So read and learn how to write a term paper. Let’s start with the theory.

Information on the Internet

Digitization is our everything. In the world wide web, you can find 1000 digitized books, theses, monographs, textbooks, translations, which will greatly facilitate the search for the necessary information.

Do not forget about the percentage of uniqueness of work. Simply splitting one or another chapter of the course, you will not only make the teacher angry (they, too, are not stupid and know how to surf the Internet), but also secure the negative glory of the lover of freebies and simple ways.